Jessore district was established in 1781. It consists of 4 municipalities, 36 wards, 8 upazilas, 92 unions, 1329 mouzas, 1434 villages and 120 mahallas.
Upazilas are Sharsha Upazila, Jhikargachha Upazila, Jessore Sadar Upazila, Bagherpara Upazila, Manirampur Upazila, Keshabpur Upazila, Abhaynagar Upazila and Chaugachha Upazila.
Jessore was a medieval kingdom under the rule of Pratapaditya. Jessore district once belonged to the ancient Janapada kingdom of Samatat Janapada. In 1947, Jessore was partially divided. Except for the Bangaon and Gaighata thanas, the district became part of East Bengal.
The Bengali soldiers stationed at Jessore cantonment mutinied against the Pakistan Army on 29 March 1971. They were led by Captain Hafiz Uddin and Lieutenant Anwar in an uprising where 300 soldiers were killed. The rebels killed 50 Pakistani soldiers with machine gun fire at Chanchara.
On 6 December 1971, Jessore became the first district of Bengal to be liberated from Pakistani forces.